Rotational Limits of Human Joints

Rotational Limits of Human Joints
From: Digital Character Animation by George Maestri
The human form has, by nature of its structure, limitations on its range of movement. These constraints will affect how you animate your model.

Source:

Digital Character Animation (***)
George Maestri / Paperback / Published 1996
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Segment Joint Type X Y Z
Foot Ankle Rotational 65 degrees 30 degrees 0 degrees
Shin Knee Hinge 135 degrees 0 degrees 0 degrees
Thigh Hip Ball & Socket 120 degrees 20 degrees 10 degrees
Spine Hip & Spine Rotational 15 degrees 10 degrees 0 degrees
Shoulder Spine Rotational 20 degrees 20 degrees 0 degrees
Bicep Shoulder Ball & Socket 180 degrees 105 degrees 10 degrees
Forearm Elbow Hinge 150 degrees 0 degrees 0 degrees
Hand Wrist Ball & Socket 180 degrees 30 degrees 120 degrees

*It is assumed the Z axis is oriented along the bone of the joint.

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